The inflorescence is a loose, open, or upright terminal panicle, 3 to 9 inches long. Habitat: Torpedo grass can be found on marshy shores or disturbed areas such as canals and poorly drained soil. Scientifically known as Cynodon dactylon , this grass is native to Asia, Southern Europe, Northern and Eastern Africa, and Australia. The largest infestations can be found in Lake Okeechobee where it displaces close to 7,000 acres of native marsh. Control of infestations near waterways will prevent long-range spread via water and this should be a priority. In Florida, torpedograss is also a major problem for the citrus and golf course industries. Leaf sheaths can be glabrous or hairy with a membranous ligule covered by short hairs. Leaf sheaths have long white hairs along the margin. Copyright: (CC BY 3.0). Native to Africa and/or Asia, it was introduced to the United States before 1876, primarily through seed used for forage crops. This vaulable and common native can form large stands in the water or even on dry banks. and goosegrass (Eleusine indica) behave as true annuals in the northeastern United States (Figure 1). Affiliation: Starr Environmental - Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Species in Florida - Freshwater Fish - Fish Kills - Florida Wildlife; 3. Be sure to include a non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% (10 mLs or 2 teaspoons per gallon of spray solution). Torpedo grass is also known as panic grass. Torpedo grass is highly resilient and can survive during extreme drought conditions, but prefers moist soil. Species Overview. Agricultural Research Administration, Washington, D.C. Pp. The first husk is … Torpedograss has not yet been listed on the Federal or State Noxious Weed List. Cultural: Weeds such as torpedo grass generally invade open or disturbed areas following a burn, clearing mowing, etc., so these areas are particularly vulnerable to invasion. Torpedograss is most difficult to control when partially submersed in water. Even if introduced into a small area, this weed can rapidly spread to become a monoculture and crowd out native vegetation. Getting rid of quackgrass requires persistence. 697. Plants have long, creeping rhizomes with sharp-pointed (torpedo-like) tips. The rhizomes are a key to torpedograss identification. Google Privacy Policy | A single tillage operation may help to enhance herbicidal effectiveness, but disking alone may increase infestation levels through rhizome fragmentation. USDA Miscellaneous Publication No 200. The spread of torpedograss is limited to rhizomes either by rhizome expansion or fragmentation. It can also be found in more upland situations and is a frequent problem in sod production. Torpedo grass was first collected in 1876 in Alabama, but is believed to have been introduced to the United States first in Louisiana. Panicum repens: Torpedo Grass. Leaves are in two ranks, bright green to slightly glaucous, stiff, almost erect, 15-20 cm long, about 1 cm wide, tapering gradually to an acute tip, sparsely hairy on the upper surface, smooth and sometimes with a waxy bloom on the lower. The hairy leaves of Torpedograss are small and slender and reach about 2 to 10 inches long. The guide is divided into three weed groups - broadleaf lawn weeds, grass weeds, and grass-like weeds - and then into sub-groups based on the plant's life cycle. It sounds like my options to get rid of it are 1) spray glyophosphate and kill all the grass, then re-sod 2) cover with dark tarp for the whole summer and re-sod. Flowering occurs nearly year round. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. Leaf blades are stiff, linear, flat or folded; the surface often with a waxy or whitish coating. Torpedograss can be cut and the rhizomes can be dug up but physical control is difficult because it … (5.3 mm) wide with a whitish, waxy covering. In the early 1900’s the United States Department of Agriculture imported and distributed torpedograss seed for planting in pasturelands, providing forage for cattle. You can help discourage infestations of torpedo grass by: Improving drainage and soil quality in your yard to keep the existing lawn grass healthy. It provides food, protection and nesting materials for wildlife. Torpedograss has a panicle-type inflorescence, 3-9 inches long. Torpedo grass (also known as bullet grass) is a grass variety found throughout coastal, sandy-soil areas of the United States and other regions worldwide. 1988. Crabgrass reproduces by seed. Preventative: Control can be accomplished by preventing the spread and fragmentation of rhizomes. Bermuda Grass. Present: AL, CA, FL, HI, LA, MS, NC, SC, TX. This can be very difficult because if even a tiny fragment of rhizome is left in an area, it will reestablish itself. Foliage Leaves are linear, flat or folded, 10 in. Maidencane. It is called torpedograss because of its sharply pointed or torpedo-like growing tips. Imazapyr (Arsenal, Chopper, Habitat) is also very effective at 0.5 to 1% solution. Mechanical & Biological: There are limited agents being studied for biological control of torpedo grass, although Dr. Charudattan at the University of Florida has been evaluating a species of fungus. It is called torpedograss because of its sharply pointed or torpedo-like growing tips. This can be very difficult because if even a tiny fragment of rhizome is left in an area, it will reestablish itself. Torpedograss seedheads are stiff and have ascending or appressed branches. Yellow and Purple Nutsedge Nutsedge is a summer perennial grass-like weed. L. Torpedograss in a ditch. Wilcut, John H., Roland R. Dute, Bryan Truelove and Donald E. Davis. The first husk around the grain is short, with the appearance of being shortened by cutting. Eliminating quackgrass (Elymus repens) in your garden can be tricky but it can be done. panic rampant. It may be confused with torpedo grass, para grass, cupscale grass or blue maidencane. but not necessarily in water or wet mud…Torpedo Grass (Panicum repens) (There are many species of Panicum in Florida.) This grass species can invade lawns with other grasses and prove to be a difficult-to-remove weed. Present: AL, CA, FL, HI, LA, MS, NC, SC, TX How to identify lawn weeds. 0 1. Glyphosate has been the most effective herbicide used to control torpedograss. 2009. This lawn weed identification guide includes images, common and scientific names and descriptions to help you with weed id. Inflorescences may be produced year-round. wainaku grass. (5.3 mm) wide, with a white waxy covering. In addition, imazapyr has soil activity, so care must be exercised around sensitive species such as oaks (Quercus spp.). Other common names for torpedo grass: Bullet grass, coastal bermuda grass, couch panicum, creeping panic, dogtooth grass, panic rampant, quack grass, and wainaku grass. Preventive control can be accomplished by preventing the spread and fragmentation of rhizomes. Foliage. Torpedo grass flowers nearly year-round, but variable in its seed abundance and viability. Torpedograss is in the family Poaceae, including grasses such as cogongrass and bermudagrass. A rule of thumb from the lawn pros at Scotts states that even the most shade-tolerant grasses need a minimum of three to four hours of direct sun or four to six hours of partial or dappled sun (the … Weeds such as torpedograss generally invade open or disturbed areas – following a burn, clearing mowing, etc., so these areas are particularly vulnerable to invasion. Site Feedback. Control of infestations near waterways will prevent long-range spread via water and this should be a priority. They stab down into soil with pointed tips that spear soil and grow deeply. torpedo grass. Culms have bladeless scales at the base. Mowing is only marginally effective. creeping panic. Panicum repens is a perennial grass that can reach up to 3 ft. (1 m) tall. I really hope it’s not, as everything I’ve read says quackgrass is a combination of stage 4 cancer with aids for flowerbeds. (5.3 mm) wide with a whitish, waxy covering. U.S. Lawn Weed Identification. Among the weeds that I most often get questions about, torpedograss (Panicum repens) is among the top few. Torpedo grass (Panicum repens) is a perennial that can reach up to 3 ft. (1 m) tall, with long creeping rhizomes, and torpedo-like tips. I have read that this stuff is pretty much the AIDS of lawn weeds. It grows in or near shallow waters forming monocultures where it can quickly displace native vegetation. University of Florida, IFAS. When mature, Torpedograss has an inflorescence that are branched and open spikelets that point upwards. Hitchcock, A.S. 1950. Photographers: Forest and Kim Starr It's the bane of private gardens and public lands. Torpedograss (Panicum repens) is a perennial grass with robust, creeping, sharply pointed rhizomes. Spikelets are oval, 2–3 millimeters long, about 1 millimeter wide, and glabrous. (26 cm) long, 0.3 in. Joedodibroto, R., L. S. Widyanto, and M. Soerjani. These herbicides are systemic (move throughout plant tissue) so care must be exercised to minimize off-target damage. Even if introduced into a small area, this weed can rapidly spread to become a major problem. Leaves are linear, flat or folded, 10 in. (26 cm) long, 0.3 in. Type: Grass Life Cycle: Perennial Growth Habit: Low spreading Leaf Color: Medium to dark green Reproduces by: Seed, rhizomes, stolons Appearance: This is a low, dense spreading grass.It is often used in sports fields where it is … Torpedograss (Panicum repens) is among the top grasses I get questions on. Once established this grass is very difficult to eradicate. Management Options Mechanical/Physical Control Options. (26 cm) long, 0.3 in. Torpedograss can grow up to 3 feet tall, with hairy leaf sheaths and hair on the upper margins of the leaves. Torpedo grass is very palatable for cows and goats, and grazing may be integrated in an overall management scheme. Torpedograss is a scourge in area lawns, … You can find detailed information on Buckhorn Plantain, Broadleaf Plantain, Red Sorrel, Wild Violets, and Common Yarrow. Submerged torpedo grass, like other aquatic plants, can provide a habitat for micro and macro invertebrates that are used as food by fish, amphibians, reptiles, ducks, and other wildlife species. Therefore, a healthy ecosystem with high species diversity will help to deter infestation. Torpedograss can often be confused with a similar-looking plant called Maidencaine but can be differentiated by looking at the rhizomes and inflorescence… Plants have long, creeping rhizomes with sharp-pointed (torpedo-like) tips. Crabgrass can be identified by its tufted or prostrate growth habit, hairy stems, broad leaves and flower spikes with two to nine finger-like branches. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. When mature and fertile the lemma palea are yellow or stramineous. Factors Limiting the Distribution of Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, and Torpedograss, Panicum repens. When the plant dies, their decomposition provides food (detritus) for aquatic invertebrates. Like other grass weeds, the botanical position Of torpedo grass makes this species a high-risk target for classi- cal The large number Of North American congeners of torpedo grass … All Rights Reserved, Lamar University | Sul Ross State University | Texas State University, San Marcos. After much googling, it looks like it might be quackgrass. Bright yellow flowers fade to form… Torpedograss is one of the most serious weeds in Florida. Each plant can produce thousands of seeds that remain viable in the soil for several years, making these annual weeds a pe… Mechanical control is only moderately effective for torpedograss control. Bermudagrass. The name comes from the hard, sharp point on the rhizome that runs horizontally underground, like a torpedo going through the water. Reproduction occurs primarily by rhizomes. Appearance. https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/panrep/all.html Torpedograss can grow up to 3 feet tall, with hairy leaf sheaths and … The leaves are flat or rolled, 10 in. Potential uses of some aquatic weeds as paper pulp. UF Privacy Policy Binomial name; Panicum repens. Its … Panicum repens is a species of grass known by many common names, including torpedograss, creeping panic, panic rampant, couch panicum, wainaku grass, quack grass, dog-tooth grass, and bullet grass. Propagation occurs via seed dispersal or plant division with division rhizome extension used as the most effective method. Therefore, a healthy ecosystem with good species diversity will help to deter infestation. Crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) Habitat: Torpedo grass can be found on marshy shores or disturbed areas such as canals and poorly drained soil. Inflorescence with fingerlike branches usually all of equal length radiating from a single point (except Torpedograss is very palatable for cows and goats, and grazing may be integrated in an overall management scheme. Regardless of habitat conditions, multiple resprays may be required for complete control. This type of grass was used for agriculture because cattle did not trample it as easily due to its structure. Perennial Broadleaf Weed Identification Page 2 This page contains more perennial broadleaf weed identification and control methods. Its name is derived from the hard, sharp point of the rhizome that looks like a torpedo. A 2 to 3% solution of glyphosate (Roundup, etc.) Stems are stiff and erect with leaves that are folded or flat and sparsely hairy on the upper surface. couch panicum. Seed does not germinate well under Florida conditions. Source: Bugwood.org Native to Florida. Dandelions have green leaves edged with ’teeth’ that grow mostly flat to the ground. By 1992, torpedograss had taken over 70% of Florida’s public waters. Torpedo Grass: Torpedo grass (Panicum repens) is an invasive weed that invades lawns, flowerbeds, landscapes and wetlands. Keep reading to learn how to get rid of quackgrass from your yard and flower beds. Any part of the rhizome that remains in soil will resprout and produce new plants. © 2020 University of Florida / IFAS / Center for Aquatic & Invasive Plants If mowing or tillage is used, care must be taken to prevent transport of rhizome or stolon fragments. Weed Science 36(5): 577-582. http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_pare3.pdf, http://www.fleppc.org/ID_book/Panicum%20repens.pdf, © 2014 Texas Invasive Species Institute. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Species: P. repens. Torpedo grass has no tolerance for cold weather and will die off following a frost thus limiting the possible range to the southern United States. Torpedograss is in the family Poaceae, including grasses such as cogongrass and bermudagrass. Torpedograss can grow up to 3 feet tall, growing from underground rhizomes that have hard pointed tips that resemble torpedoes (which is how they got their name). This page uses Google Analytics It spreads quickly when left unattended, and it drives out native species of plants. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. The denseness of the mats may impede water flow in ditches and canals and restrict recreational use of shoreline areas of lakes and ponds. is very effective. Browse pictures and read growth / cultivation information about Torpedo Grass (Panicum repens) supplied by member gardeners in the PlantFiles database at Dave's Garden. Torpedo grass can grow up to a height of 3 feet, and because it grows rapidly, it is not a desirable option for landscaping your home lawn or … These plants germinate in the spring and grow rapidly throughout the summer as warm-season (C4) plants, mature in late summer, and produce seed before dying at the first frost in autumn. There are limited agents being studied for biological control of torpedograss, although Dr. Charudattan at the University of Florida has been evaluating a species of fungus. This weed appears in disturbed areas, weak or thin turf areas and in edges of the lawn next to sidewalks and drives. About half of my st augustine front lawn is now solid torpedo grass. Continuous tillage will provide good control, but is often impractical in many natural areas. Different grass species require varying amounts and strengths of sunlight. Garden bros, help identify this weed (Identified: Torpedo grass) Posted by Logician on 4/28/19 at 10:48 am. 1983. Torpedo grass has no tolerance for cold weather and will die off following a frost thus limiting the possible range to the southern United States. Google Search: Panicum repens Google Images: Panicum repens NatureServe Explorer: Panicum repens USDA Plants: Panicum repens Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States: Panicum repens Bugwood Network Images: Panicum repens. Plants have long, creeping rhizomes with sharp-pointed (torpedo-like) tips. Torpedo grass Panicum repens L. this approach feasible and be given serious consideration. This annoying plant can flower all year long. Panicum repens is a perennial grass that can reach up to 3 ft. (1 m) tall. U.S. Appearance Panicum repens is a perennial grass that can reach up to 3 ft. (1 m) tall. Torpedo grass is a marshy plant that tends to invade areas with poor drainage or that have recently been disturbed (such as by a controlled burn, tilling, or grading). 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