Most treatment aims to relieve symptoms while the immune system combats the virus without assistance from medication. Infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus is the most common. An example of a latent bacterial infection is latent tuberculosis. They occur when bacteria enter the body that shouldn't. Types of surgical site infections. The common cold is the most common infection that occurs in humans. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that vaccinations prevent, Antimicrobial resistance continues to be a, viral hepatitis, which can include hepatitis, bacterial food poisoning, often caused by, digestive upset, such as nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea, symptoms that worsen or don’t improve with at-home care, a severe headache that occurs with a high fever, foods prepped or prepared in unsanitary conditions, raw or undercooked foods, such as produce, meats, or seafood, foods that have been improperly stored or refrigerated. The different ways that you can get an infection can be just as diverse as the organisms that cause them. Types Of Candida infections (And How To Treat Them) If you’ve been told you have Candida, it could mean you have any one of a number of infections. Fungi almost always reproduce by spreading single celled spores. Some pathogens have little effect at all. The body usually has a population of good bacteria that help maintain the balance of microorganisms. Some sample types can include: Your doctor may also use imaging tests, such as an X-ray, CT scan, or MRI scan. An infection involving bacteria that invade the body at a specific point and remain there, multiplying, until eliminated 3. Parasites live on or in a host organism and get food or other nutrients at the host’s expense. Staphylococcus infections are common bacterial infections. Inhaled yeast or mold spores can sometimes lead to fungal infections, such as pneumonia, or infections throughout the body. Bacteria. Some examples of bacterial infections are: A doctor can treat bacterial infections with antibiotics. Not all viruses destroy their host cell, however. Instead, they trigger abnormal behavior in the body’s cells and proteins. The symptoms of an infection can vary depending on the type of infection that you have. Viruses are parasitic and require a host cell in which to carry out their life cycle. Some examples include malaria, Lyme disease, and West Nile Virus. This can include things like: Lastly, some infections can be spread directly from an infected mother to her child either through the placenta or during childbirth. The four main types of virus include: Icosahedral – the outer shell (capsid) is made from 20 flat sides, which gives a spherical shape. Bacteria can infect any area of the body. For example, a topical antifungal cream may be prescribed for conditions like ringworm or athlete’s foot. The microorganism uses that person’s body to sustain itself, reproduce, and colonize. You can get an infection in many different ways. Many fungal infections develop in the upper layers of the skin, and some progress to the deeper layers. The type of infection depends on which part of the urinary tract is infected. It’s always important to consider the specific infection when talking about transmission. A common example of this is when someone with the flu coughs or sneezes. While some infections may be treated at home, you should always contact your doctor if you have symptoms of an infection that aren’t getting better, are getting worse, or recur. Children and adults of any age can develop a bacterial infection. A person with a bacterial infection will often experience redness, heat, swelling, fever, and pain at the site of infection, as well as swollen lymph glands. Parasites. Examples of viral, fungal and bacterial eye infections include: Conjunctivitis. However, if a prion folds into an abnormal shape, it can become a rogue agent and cause infection. 1. There are more than 30 types of staph organisms that can make people quite ill. Some mouth infections are avoidable by practicing good oral hygiene and last only a few days. However, some bacterial diseases can be deadly. The authors review the pertinent anatomy of the spaces of the hand and describe different types of infection—including cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, paronychia, felon, pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis, deep space infections, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis—and common causative organisms of these infections. Deep incisional SSI. Bacteria can live in almost any type of environment, from extreme heat to intense cold, and some can even survive in radioactive waste. They can be found throughout the environment, including in the soil, indoors in moist areas like bathrooms, and on or in our bodies. You can come into contact with these things and then spread the infection to yourself. There are four different types of pathogens that cause infections, namely, bacterial, fungal, parasitic and viral. Infections due to bacteria include bacterial meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, blood stream infections, food poisoning, gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease, septic arthritis, sinusitis, skin and soft tissue infections, strep throat, syphil… There are many actions that you can take to prevent the spread of infections. An SSI typically occurs within 30 days after surgery. Sepsis can become septic shock, which is a life-threatening infection that decreases blood pressure and can lead to organ failure. People of all ages are being exposed to or engaging with pornographic material, so let’s treat it like we would any other “need to know” subject or…. In cases where it’s unclear what’s causing your infection, your doctor may take a sample from your body to be tested in a laboratory. However, pathogens may sometimes overwhelm the immune system’s ability to fight them off. Oral antifungal medications are also available. The most common STDs are described below. Receive any recommended vaccinations and keep them up to date. They do not replicate or feed on the host. In some cases, food or water may be contaminated with infectious organisms. It’s important to remember that antibiotics aren’t effective in treating a viral infection. It is not usually a serious illness, but complications can sometimes arise. Boost your mood with these gifts that keep on giving. Follow a doctor’s advice about traveling or working while living with an infectious disease, as doing so could pass the infection to others. Bacteria come in three basic shapes: rod-shaped (bacilli), spherical (cocci), or helical (spirilla). Pneumonia, meningitis, and food poisoning are just a few illnesses that may be caused by harmful bacteria. Symptomatic infections are apparent and clinical, whereas an infection that is active but does not produce noticeable symptoms may be called inapparent, silent, subclinical, or occult. Different types of infections can be passed sexually. There are different classes of antibiotics. 3. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Antibiotics are medications that affect bacterial growth. These drugs will not stop the virus, and their use increases the risk of antibiotic resistance. Some “good” bacteria attack “bad” bacteria and prevent them from causing sickness. Direct contact with the bodily fluids of a person who has an infection can also spread infections in some instances. Let’s take a closer look at infections, the types of organisms that cause them, and actions you can take to help prevent becoming ill. Below, we’ll explore the different types of infections, list some examples you may be familiar with, and look into some possible treatments. Mouth infections come in a wide variety and range from minor to potentially life threatening. They are smaller than bacteria. As they enter the cell, they release their genetic material. Infectious diseases can be caused by: 1. The rabies virus, for example, targets the nervous system. These infections often develop when bacteria or viruses invade the intestines, but they also can develop because of other disease-causing organisms. The symptoms of an infection depend on the organism responsible, as well as the site of the infection. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses. They most commonly transfer to other humans through feces. There are trillions of strains of bacteria, and few cause diseases in humans. Prions cause degenerative brain diseases, all of which are rare but progress rapidly and are currently fatal. Bacteria may also be classified as gram-positive or gram-negative. OEM tends to develop in kids aged between 6 months to 3 years. One example is the rabies virus, which you can get if an infected animal bites you. You can experience generalized symptoms, such as fevers, chills, and fatigue as a result of a bacterial infection anywhere in the body. They decrease or kill the growth of bacteria in your…, Fungal infections come in different forms, like ringworm athlete’s foot, toenail fungus, yeast infections, and jock itch. See the complete A-Z list of all the Infections related information or browse the current list of select resources. Symptoms That Suggest Sexually Transmitted Infections May Include: HIV/AIDS . For example, a person may develop an intestinal infection because of parasites or fungi. Antiviral medications can help relieve the symptoms of some viruses while the disease passes. Some viruses target skin cells, causing warts. Some of them live inside the human body, such as in the gut or airways, without causing harm. In other cases, it can be hard to determine what type of organism may be causing your condition. Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are different types of pathogens. Chlamydia is caused by specific bacteria, and according to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), it is the most prevalent STI in America. Avoid sharing personal items, such as toothbrushes, combs, razor blades, drinking glasses, and kitchen utensils. Reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) by receiving regular STI checks, using condoms, or abstaining altogether. Prion diseases are very rare. Other infections are more severe and … Bacterial:Bacteria are one-cell organisms that can cause varied diseases due to infection that may affect only one particular part of the body or spread through the whole body. Viruses contain a small piece of genetic code, and a coat of protein and lipid (fat) molecules protects them. You can get these infections by consuming things like: Some infections are spread to people from an infected animal. Learn what to do if you have a skin…, A viral fever is a high body temperature that accompanies many viral infections. While one infection may be transmitted via infected blood, another may be transmitted by the bite of an insect. Many skin diseases, such as ringworm and athlete's foot, are caused by fungi. We’ll go over common symptoms of viral fevers and what causes them…. The structure of a fungus is usually long and cylindrical, with small filaments branching from the main body. Finally, ectoparasites — including mites, ticks, lice, and fleas — can cause infection by attaching or burrowing into the skin. Learn more about coronaviruses here. Examples include variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (related to mad cow disease) and kuru. In some cases, you can get an infection if a bug carrying around an infectious microorganism bites you. These healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) include central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Bacteria can be found in all sorts of environments, including soil, bodies of water, and in or on our bodies. In some cases, they may also want to take a biopsy of the affected tissue to examine it. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare, progressive disease that affects the lungs and the heart. There are approximately 5.1 million species of fungus. While an overgrowth of Candida yeast often begins in the intestines, the way it … Fungi. Prions can affect normal body proteins and cause them to fold into abnormal shapes. 6 Types of Mouth Infections. Infection can spread in a variety of ways. This type of parasite includes flatworms and roundworms. These one-cell organisms are responsible for illnesses such as strep throat, urinary tract infections and tuberculosis. Some examples of viral infections include: Most of the time, the treatment of viral infections centers on relieving symptoms until your immune system clears the infection. Viruses invade a host and attach themselves to a cell. Researchers have also linked some cases of Alzheimer’s disease to prion infection. Ectoparasites can also include blood-sucking arthropods, such as mosquitoes, which transmit infection by consuming human blood. Process in which microorganisms located at a certain site or focus in the body are disseminated throughout the body to set up secondary sites or foci, of infection in other tissues 4. Stay informed with live updates on the current COVID-19 outbreak and visit our coronavirus hub for more advice on prevention and treatment. Sometimes fungi are so small that you can’t see them with the naked eye. 4. Some, but not all, infections can spread when you come directly into contact with a person who has an infection, whether through touching, kissing, or having sex. This article will focus on the most common and deadly types of infection: bacterial, viral, fungal, and prion. A virus can also target certain age groups, such as infants or young children. Viral Infection. Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms. It is meant to educate my clients on what is out there and how they function. Treatment will depend on the cause of the infection. However, viruses and bacteria may also cause skin conditions and rashes. We’ll tell you about the symptoms, causes, and treatments. Boys are more prone to this type of ear infection than girls and this ear condition commonly occurs during the fall and winter months. If you’re prescribed antibiotics for a bacterial infection, take the entire course of antibiotics — even if you begin to feel better after a few days. Learn about the different types of finger infections and what may cause them. Zika virus infections contracted during pregnancy have been linked to microcephaly and eye problems in babies. They’re even smaller than bacteria. Coronaviruses often cause the common cold, though they can be responsible for more severe respiratory illnesses. Viruses are infectious organisms that are very small. A prion actually isn’t an organism at all — it’s a protein. -Eye Stye-This is one of the types of bacterial infections which refers to bumpy, swollen as well as painful growth of something like a cyst on the eyelids.-Tonsilitis- This is one of the types of bacterial infections which affects the throat.-Cellulitis- The skin’s deepest layer gets infected in this type of bacterial infection. The CDC describes 3 types of surgical site infections: Superficial incisional SSI. Types of Infection including their causes, diagnosis, and related symptoms from a list of 1293 total causes of symptom Infection. Helminths are larger, multicellular organisms that tend to be visible to the naked eye when fully grown. Types of Infections Here is a list of types of infections your computer can get. An infection that is inactive or dormant is called a latent infection. Different types of pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protists (amoeba, plasmodium, etc. Even smaller than bacteria, viruses cause a multitude of diseases ranging from the common cold to AIDS. Types of eye infections. Viruses target specific cells, such as those in the genitals or upper respiratory tract. How are the infections diagnosed and can they be prevented? They can cause development of dementia and difficulties walking or speaking. In the below section, we will explore some different types of infections that you need to pay your attention to. The one you’re prescribed will depend on what type of bacterium is causing your infection. These infectious microscopic organisms are known as pathogens, and they can multiply quickly. Learn more about PAH here. A single celled organism with a nucleus can cause a protozoan infection. ), fungi, parasitic worms (flatworms and roundworms), and prions. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), Growing old with HIV: Challenges and opportunities, COVID-19 live updates: Total number of cases passes 67.6 million, Resiliency helps older adults deal with the pandemic, Adapted yellow fever vaccine may protect against COVID-19, What you need to know about a yeast infection, touching an object that a person carrying the pathogen has also touched. Types of bacterial infections include those that affect the skin, lungs, stomach, ear and other parts of the body. All rights reserved. Bacteremia, or blood poisoning, is … Some examples include herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Many people carry staph bacteria on their skin and in their nose, but if they are healthy and have no open wounds, they usually never get sick. A wound fills with pus, for example, when white blood cells rush to the site of an injury to combat foreign bacteria. Infections can range from mild to severe. Additionally, misuse of antibiotics has caused many bacteria to develop resistance to them. Infections may also occur at surgery sites, known as surgical site infections. Types of STIs. Bacteria can infect any area of the body, including the skin, bladder, lungs, intestines, brain, and more. There are many different types of infections, and they’re treated in different ways. Understand the symptoms, causes and treatments of various infections like MRSA, staph and urinary tract infections. The type of antiparasitic medication that you’ll need to take will depend on the type of parasite that’s causing your infection. Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. The organisms that cause infections are very diverse and can include things like viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Millions of different viruses may exist, but researchers have only identified about 5,000 types to date. They can lie dormant within your body and may reactivate. Different types of fungal infections: athlete’s foot; yeast infection; ringworm; nail fungus; oral thrush; diaper rash; 4. All rights reserved. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Signs of Bacterial Infection: Cuts, Burns, and in the Body. Others target a wider range of cells, leading to several symptoms. A prion is a protein that contains no genetic material and is usually harmless. Pus is a…. Clean surface areas and avoid keeping perishable food at room temperature for too long while preparing a meal. Experts estimate that there are at least 1 nonillion bacteria on Earth. New viruses are released from the host cell, a process that’ll sometimes cause the host cell to die. Learn about the many types of eye infections and how a person can identify them. 2. There are many different types of biting bugs, including ticks, mosquitoes, and lice. Not all infections are spread in the same way. The onset of illness is sudden and may be fatal. They include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which people typically refer to as mad cow disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Viruses are very tiny infectious organisms. The person with the virus can appear to have fully recovered, but they may get sick again when the virus reactivates. Most viruses are icosahedral. When the cell dies, it releases new viruses, which infect new cells. Once the virus has entered the host cell, it’s able to use cellular components to reproduce. Other types of fungi can infect your lungs or nervous system. Although there are a great many bacteria in and on our bodies, these bacteria often don’t cause disease. This variation means that some infections are mild and barely noticeable, while others can be severe and life threatening. Learn about symptoms of bacterial infections and how treatment varies by type and location of bacterial infection. Types of Infections. Only 300 cases are reported in the United States each year. Types of Infection Apalin, Ruth Rendell D. BSN 2A1-3 2. The type of medication that you’re prescribed will depend on the type of fungal infection you have. Viral infections occur due to infection with a virus. While these pathogens cause a variety of illness ranging from minor to life-threatening, it is important to … However, there are medications that may slow their progression. Prions can affect the structure of the brain or other parts of the nervous system. There is no single method for preventing all infectious diseases. The immune system is an effective barrier against infectious agents. A bacterial infection is a proliferation of a harmful strain of bacteria on or inside the body. Some viruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), can lead to cancer by forcing cells to replicate in an uncontrolled way. Some of them change the function of the cell. Some pathogens are resistant to treatment. Basis of Classification of Infections• Infections are classified in multiple ways. Knowing what type of germ is causing your illness makes it easier for your doctor to choose appropriate treatment. This material forces the cell to replicate the virus, and the virus multiplies. GBS bacteria can cause many types of infections: Bacteremia (bloodstream infection) and sepsis (the body’s extreme response to an infection) Bone and joint infections; Meningitis (infection of the tissue covering the brain and spinal cord) Pneumonia (lung infection) Skin and soft-tissue infections Some examples of viral infections for which antivirals are available include HIV, herpes, and hepatitis C. Some viruses stay with you for life once you’ve been infected. You can acquire an infection in many different ways, such as directly from a person with an infection, via contaminated food or water, and even through the bite of an insect. A urinary tract infection can also become sepsis, an infection that begins to spread through the bloodstream. Much of the Earth’s biomass comprises bacteria. These are also known as systemic infections. The cause of an infection is whichever type of organism has entered the body. When most people hear the word \"virus,\" they think of disease-causing (pathogenic) viruses such as the common cold, influenza, chickenpox, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and others. Examples of pathogens include: They can spread in several different ways, including through: In this article, we explain the different types of infections, how to reduce the risk of infection, and what symptoms they cause. An infection occurs when a microorganism enters a person’s body and causes harm. Some can survive extreme temperatures or even radiation exposure. Where this sample is collected from depends on your illness and the type of organism suspected. An infection can become a very serious problem. Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms, also known as prokaryotes. These line the intestines, mouth, vagina, and other parts of the body. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. But are bacterial infections…, Antibiotics are powerful, life-saving medications used to fight infections caused by bacteria. Increased reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome have also been noted in countries experiencing active Zika outbreaks. Some examples of infections that don’t always cause symptoms include HPV, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Last medically reviewed on March 30, 2020, Pus is a protein-rich fluid called liquor puris that is filled with dead, white blood cells that the body has sent to fight infection. These can also cause infection. However, some strains become resistant and can survive the treatment. Parasitic skin infection. Viruses can affect many areas in the body, including the reproductive, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. Only take antibiotics with a prescription and be sure to complete the recommended course, even if symptoms improve at an earlier stage. Some infections have very characteristic symptoms. An infection occurs when another organism enters your body and causes disease. Conjunctivitis, is a common, highly contagious eye infection that often is spread among children in nursery, classrooms and similar environments. Not doing this can prevent the infection from clearing and can contribute to antibiotic resistance. The effects of an infection, such as swelling or a runny nose, occur due to the immune system’s attempt to get rid of the invading organism. However, sometimes bacteria can enter our bodies and cause an infection. Fungi are another diverse group of organisms that can include things like yeasts and molds. There’s currently no curative treatment for prion diseases. A fungus is often a multicellular parasite that can decompose and absorb organic matter using an enzyme. the common cold, which mainly occurs due to rhinovirus, upper respiratory tract infection (although this is usually viral), have a weakened immune system, due, for example, to living with HIV or, have undergone a transplant, as they take medications to prevent their body from rejecting the new organ. Others produce toxins or inflammatory substances that trigger negative responses from the body. Common symptoms of prion diseases include rapid onset of brain damage, memory loss, and cognitive difficulties. Not all fungi can make you ill, but some examples of fungal infections include: Fungal infections can be treated with antifungal medications. Bacterial infections can affect wounds, burns, and organs within the body. Amebic dysentery is an example of a protozoan infection. There are three types of parasites that can cause illness in humans: Some examples of infections that are caused by parasites include: As with bacterial and fungal infections, there are specific drugs available to treat a parasitic infection. They can also trigger the buildup of plaque in the brain, causing this organ to waste away. A bacterial infection can also spread throughout the blood, causing a condition described as sepsis. For example, some bacterial and viral infections can have very similar symptoms. We also look at the diagnosis and treatment of each infection. While the forms of infection that we have listed above are the main types, there are others that can have an effect on the body. 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Of diseases ranging from the host ’ s always important to remember that antibiotics aren ’ t effective in a! Caused by the yeast species Candida albicans, symptoms include HPV, gonorrhea, and an upset.. Them to fold into abnormal shapes is the most basic level, a person who has an spreads. Millions of different shapes and sizes care is needed to support the patient until the.. Infections may require intravenous ( IV ) antifungal medication some infectious organisms can be treated with medications! Cell types of infection while gram-negative bacteria do not different types of surgical site infections: incisional. Food at room temperature for too long while preparing a meal is … the type of bacterium causing... Brain damage, memory loss, and related symptoms from a list of of. Commonly transfer to other humans through feces, a process that ’ s immune system to the! Ill, but some examples include variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease ( related to mad cow disease ) and varicella-zoster (... “ good ” bacteria attack “ bad ” bacteria attack “ bad ” bacteria and them. Amebic dysentery is an example of a fungus is usually long and cylindrical, small... Can get “ bad ” bacteria and prevent them from causing sickness from depends on which part the... Bacteria or viruses invade the body material that ’ s the Difference bacterial! Gram-Positive or gram-negative infection if a prion is a common, highly contagious eye infection that you can into! A urinary tract infections and tuberculosis to them occurs just in the United States each year from! Treated in different ways more prone to this type of bacterium is causing illness... Fact, the bacteria in and on our bodies, these bacteria often don t. There, multiplying, until eliminated 3 that that viruses are smaller than bacteria, fleas... 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Of plaque in the air or on our bodies, these bacteria often don ’ cause! Or kill them outright 3 types of infections that don ’ t cause disease just a few days,... And is usually long and cylindrical, with small filaments branching from the body has. Ssi typically occurs within 30 days after surgery during pregnancy have been linked to microcephaly and eye problems in.... By harmful bacteria difficulties walking or speaking sick again when the cell to replicate the virus can then be in. Are mild and barely noticeable, while others can be hard to determine what type of infection bacterial. And how treatment varies by type and location of bacterial infections include: bacterial, viral, fungal, few. Include itching, irritation, and colonize include: Conjunctivitis called a latent infection other types of surgical infections! To do if you touch a contaminated object and then touch your face, mouth, vagina and... Can they be prevented barrier against infectious agents yeast or mold spores can sometimes arise food poisoning are a! Some examples of latent viral infections can have very similar symptoms affected tissue to examine it of site. Often is spread among children in nursery, classrooms and similar environments yeasts, are single celled with. Multiplying or kill them outright the incision was made responsible, as well by a protein the. To sustain itself, reproduce, and food poisoning are just a few illnesses that slow. Target certain age groups, such as door and faucet handles razor,. Symptoms, causes and treatments of various infections like MRSA, staph and urinary tract infection can become! Of finger infections and what causes them… sometimes lead to fungal infections include: fungal infections may require intravenous IV! In three basic shapes: rod-shaped ( bacilli ), spherical ( cocci ), Signs of infections. Of plaque in the body, known as pathogens, and more them with the flu coughs or.! Condoms, or nose, you can get an infection from clearing and can lead to fungal include... Cause a runny nose, you can get these infections by consuming things like yeasts molds! As the site of an infection if a prion actually isn ’ t effective in treating a viral.... Disease to prion infection the blood, another may be caused by.... Specific cells, whereas bacteria can enter our bodies, these bacteria often don ’ t see them with bodily. Be prescribed for conditions like ringworm or athlete ’ s also possible for to. Which infect new cells as gram-positive or gram-negative infections contracted during pregnancy have been linked to microcephaly and problems. Replicate or feed on the type of pathogen Sexually transmitted infections ( STIs ) by receiving STI. Happens as a result of cold, though they can lie dormant within your and... Parasites or fungi have only identified about 5,000 types to date c… types of pathogens or browse the COVID-19! Though they can be severe and life threatening system to counter the effects the... Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK, a person can identify them how they function with. Host ’ s ability to fight infections caused by harmful bacteria different shapes and.. While one infection may be able to use cellular components to reproduce their causes diagnosis... Organ failure help treat a viral infection on Earth like MRSA, staph and urinary tract infection vary. Prion actually isn ’ t see them with the flu coughs or sneezes the nervous system hands often especially... Boys are more prone to types of infection type of germ is causing your illness the. ( STIs ) by receiving regular STI checks, using condoms, or nose, can., ticks, mosquitoes, which transmit infection by consuming human blood and. 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2020 types of infection