On the other hand, many cottagers leave their lots in a relatively natural state, and some clearing of trees can create canopy gaps that improve Dwarf Lake Iris habitat (Jones and Jalava pers. Seeds of Dwarf Lake Iris have a white, corkscrew-shaped elaiosome (an oily appendage) which may serve as food to ants (Chittenden and Carrinton 1996). 26, p. 371. accessed March 23, 2009. 2009); however, the closely related Crested Iris was used for digestive ailments (Hamel and Chiltosky 1975). 2008c. Internal report prepared for Parks Canada, Resource Conservation Division, Ontario Region, Cornwall, 182 pp. Fish and Wildlife Service 1988). The total population of Dwarf Lake Iris is not considered severely fragmented according to COSEWIC definitions, although there are large geographic distances among most populations, especially in the context of seeds that are ant-dispersed. SARA provides protection for plants of Dwarf Lake Iris on federal lands (National Parks, Department of Defence lands, First Nations, etc.). The movement of rhizome fragments by water (e.g., after flooding, ice scour, or storms) would seem to be a potential long-distance dispersal mechanism. Shoreline development has completely removed or destroyed habitat in some locations, while at others it has improved habitat by opening the canopy and creating new open ground. Wisc. Endangered Species Act since 1988. Iris lacustris f. albiflora Cruise & Catling, Rhodora 74: 271. Occurrences of Iris Lacustris on Manitoulin Island. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1988. 1: 23 1818. The genus Iris. Is there an observed, inferred, or projected continuing decline in extent of occurrence? Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 1993. Federal Register, Vol. Reconnaissance Life Science Inventory of Corisande Bay Area of Natural and Scientific Interest 2006. There are at least 40 extant populations and an estimated population size of >50 million ramets. SARA establishes COSEWIC as an advisory body ensuring that species will continue to be assessed under a rigorous and independent scientific process. Therefore, the order of magnitude of the number of ramets is probably more important than the actual value. Family: Iridaceae . is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Iris (family Iridaceae). Hannan G.L. accessed by Makkay, October 2002. The fruit is a dry capsule. Two of the largest populations are protected in a national and a provincial park. Habitat and ecology of Iris lacustris (dwarf lake iris). Several colonies documented in recent surveys are on the order of hectares, square kilometres, or in linear strips many kilometres in length. Figure 4. Krotkov, P.V. Insect larvae and chipmunks have been observed consuming the capsules (Makholm 1986). Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. On the other hand, 10,000-20,000 ramets “appeared” at Site #36 in a private yard after duff was removed by the landowner (Jalava 2008a). Species not found. COSEWIC (2010) defines a mature individual as follows: “reproducing units within a clone should be counted as individual, except where such units are unable to survive alone.” Thus, ramets are considered mature individuals. ~45,280,000 ramets estimated in a 14.5 km² area (Jalava 2007) + 430 ramets, Large area; contains 4 populations previously considered to be separate, 836 ramets found in two separate patches during partial survey (Jalava 2007), “Several patches of several hundred plants". Version 7.1. Orick. EO ranks are as follows: A - Excellent predicted viability, B - Good predicted viability, E - Verified extant, H – Historical. Many new populations have been discovered, and some populations previously reported as only a few square metres in size have been found to cover many square kilometres. + 2 maps. Since the 1890s there has been a slight decline of 5% and future declines are expected if cottage and housing development continues to occur in the occupied areas. Isozyme diversity in Iris cristata and the threatened glacial endemic I.lacustris (Iridaceae). comm. Map not Available. 12+ vols. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa. Pl. This is a colonial, rhizomatous plant with tens of millions of ramets (shoots). Jalava, J.V. Images not available. Iris lacustris in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. v + 109 pp. The report writer, Kristina Makkay would like to acknowledge the help received from Andrew Promaine at Parks Canada, and Mike Oldham and Kelly Ramster from the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre, and also thank Carol and Earl of South Baymouth, Manitoulin Island, and various cottage owners who provided access to their land. Given the colonial habitat of Dwarf Lake Iris and its ability to cover large patches of ground, dispersal by ants would seem to move seeds only a very short distance relative to size of the colonies, some of which are many square kilometres in size. A population near Scott Point (Bruce County) documented in a wetland evaluation is presumed extirpated by habitat alteration, but the general area may still contain some populations and is considered a potential site with unsurveyed suitable habitat (Jalava 2008a). Projected or suspected percent reduction (or increase) in total number of mature individuals over the next 10 years, or 3 generations. Higman, 2001. Figure 1. Are there extreme fluctuations in index of area of occupancy? Natural Heritage Education Specialist MacGregor Point Provincial Park, Port Elgin, Ontario. Furthermore, the 40 extant populations are all separated from each other by at least one km. Trick, A. and G. Fewless. The mapped location was searched (Jalava 2007), and the habitat was relict cobble beach unsuitable for Dwarf Lake Iris. Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Not found by JVJ in intensive search in 2008. Reported to have a large population by Morton (1990). Jalava (2008b) listed lack of public awareness as a potential threat, explaining that landowners might inadvertently destroy sterile Dwarf Lake Iris plants and habitat. Dwarf Lake Iris blooms from mid-May to early June. Wildfire on the scale that was historically present may never occur again. It arose from the need for a single, official, scientifically sound, national listing of wildlife species at risk. Threats are known but not easily reversible. Ottawa. Is there an observed continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat? and P.M. Catling, 1972. The committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species. Images not available. 1996-2008) have observed sterile colonies of ramets under full canopy with no flowers present. Cronquist, A. Joan and Walter Crowe, Bruce-Grey Plant Committee, Owen Sound Field Naturalists, Owen Sound. It is unknown whether this limiting factor could be affecting populations of Dwarf Lake Iris. 2007. It is sometimes found in moist habitats, such as the fringes of graminoid fens. 2009). Judith Jones B.S., M.S., has been an independent biological consultant since 1995. Box 7000, 300 Water Street, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 8M5. The current distribution of habitat for Dwarf Lake Iris is probably based on the post-glacial and climatic history of the area. The Michigan Botanist (44) 1 pp 13-27. Site not found. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. vi + 94 pp. Peterborough, Ontario. and S. Dumesh. ), the Bee Hawk-moth (Hemaris affinis), and a species of rove beetle (Engelken 2003) visit Dwarf Lake Iris flowers. Accessed July 2010. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the dwarf lake iris Iris lacustris in Canada. Parks Canada Agency, Environment Canada. Michigan Botanist 15: 157–163. Contact us about this record. Their small size suggests that these populations are declining. 54: 295-329. Average age is difficult to measure even from rhizome nodes because rhizomes fork frequently and criss-cross underground. and J.V. Environmental factors influence reproduction in Dwarf Lake Iris. Recent road and cottage development in the area impeded shoreline access. Mentioned in 5E-2 GAP analysis (Noble 1995). Also, the strong tendency of Dwarf Lake Iris to reproduce vegetatively, with new plants being established from rhizomes rather than from out-crossing, results in large colonies with numerous genetically identical individuals, perpetuating the low overall genetic diversity. 3, No. Iris lacustris or dwarf lake iris has a very small area that it grows in. Halictid Bees (Augochlorella striata) (Larson 1998), bumble bees (Bombus spp. 31, Waterloo, ON. Dwarf lake iris is most likely to be confused with The largest population covers >14 km² and the second largest is >7 km². The Flora of the Tobermory Islands Bruce Peninsula National Park. accessed March 31, 2009. These populations may be extirpated as they have not been relocated in more than 20 years despite recent survey work (Schaefer 1996; Jalava 2008a). A resource management study of rare vascular plants of the Tobermory Islands unit, Georgian Bay Islands National Park. There is no detectable isozyme variation at any Dwarf Lake Iris locus, and nearly all isozymes found in Dwarf Lake Iris exhibited identical electrophoretic mobilities to Crested Iris. On the Bruce Peninsula and in southern Bruce County, 31 of approximately 35 previously reported Dwarf Lake Iris occurrences have been inventoried since 2002 (Makkay 2003; Jalava 2008a,b,c, 2007; NHIC 2008). Penskar, M.R., S.R. Available online at [Accessed Mar 23, 2009], Morton, John K. personal communication 2009. 17 pp. Area is now mostly residential / cottages. The threats are: shoreline development and road construction, loss of habitat from fire suppression, and trampling from ATVs, heavy machinery, pedestrians, and bicycles. A study of isozyme diversity (Hannan and Orick 2000) found that Dwarf Lake Iris probably had a relatively recent origin from a limited Crested Iris gene pool (see Population genetic structure and variability, below). Jalava, J.V. The difficulty of controlling ATV use makes it a serious concern, even though there may be some localized benefits (see next). Poster presented at the 4th International Botanic Gardens Conservation Congress September 1995, Perth, Australia. Ottawa. Dwarf Lake Iris was considered a subspecies and a variety of Crested Iris (Iris cristata) (Dykes 1913; Mason and Iltis 1965) but is currently recognized as a distinct species based on morphology, habitat, range, and chromosome configuration and number (Foster 1937; Scoggan 1978; Henderson 2003). A large colony of Dwarf Lake Iris ramets carpeting the ground, Figure 3. In Michigan flower and fruit production were highest with intermediate light levels, young soils, and a water table >25 cm below the surface (Van Kley and Wujek 1993). 1982-1987. Seeds germinate sporadically after long periods of dormancy (Makholm 1986). 5 additional populations were lost earlier, Slight decline loss of 2 populations since 1989. Michigan Botanist 22: 93-102. 1996-2008), which is exacerbated by fire suppression. Low genetic diversity increases the potential for loss of individual populations due to disease. Harv. Classification: Larson B.M.H. Dykes. Morton, J.K. and J.M. Scientific Name - Iris lacustris Appearance - Dwarf lake iris is a miniature iris with showy, deep blue flowers. Contr. Academy of Science, Arts & Letters. The Flora of Canada, Part 2, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae, Monocotyledoneae. Dwarf Lake Iris is also a popular rock garden plant with several companies selling seeds commercially (COSEWIC 2004). Pl. Jalava. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. 2006). The total population is not severely fragmented. Unpublished database submitted to Parks Canada and Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre. The extent of occurrence (EO) for this species is 8,232 km². thesis, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. Makkay, K. 2003. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Wildlife Species A species, subspecies, variety, or geographically or genetically distinct population of animal, plant or other organism, other than a bacterium or virus, that is wild by nature and is either native to Canada or has extended its range into Canada without human intervention and has been present in Canada for at least 50 years. If in the park, not extensive. The State Wildflower of Michigan is an attractive miniature iris with showy, deep blue flowers, which open from mid May to early June and are borne singly on short stems which are sometimes no more than two or three inches tall, and are becoming increasingly uncommon in the wild. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Population likely is still there. Venn. Figure 3. Species not found. Odawa Elder and Spiritual Leader, Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve, Wikwemikong Ontario. 3, No. This is in spite of the fact that Dwarf Lake Iris is self-compatible and self-pollination does occur (Larson 1998). At many sites Jones and Jalava (pers. Govaerts, R. et al. Although trend data are still lacking (most populations have had only one observation where abundance or areal extent was recorded), the species is certainly at a much lower level of risk than previously thought. synoym:Iris cristata lacustris Dykes, Genus Iris 106. Coverage 53 m², in 3 patches, ~8600 shoots. The recovery strategy (Jalava 2008b) has been posted on the SARA Public Registry, which identifies critical habitat. lacustris (Nutt.) The breeding system, fecundity, and dispersal of Iris lacustris. During her seven years of consulting experience she has undertaken a number of terrestrial and wetland vegetation surveys for government agencies, industry, and private landowners across Ontario. Iris. 2004. Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis): Not met (insufficient information). Species at Risk Inventory: Dwarf Lake Iris (Iris lacustris). In Canada, Dwarf Lake Iris grows on alvars, dolostone bedrock shorelines, sand or gravel beach ridges, and in openings in coniferous woodlands. Statistics. Part of the Dwarf Lake Iris population on the Wikwemikong Reserve is protected in an area that has been a protected wilderness since the mid-1980s (designated by a band council resolution). Brownell, V.R. The inflorescence is one- to rarely two-flowered. and D.E. Jones 2008. Special Concern (SC)* A wildlife species that may become a threatened or an endangered species because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats. Range of occurrence in Canada (province/territory/ocean): Ontario. ~630 m² cover in 5 patches, ~97,200 shoots in area of ~2ha + area of 3 small patches comprising 4.5 m² with ~1800 shoots. 1965. Threatened and Endangered Species System. Dwarf Lake Iris is a perennial, small in stature (up to 20 cm in height), with flat, strap-shaped leaves (0.5-1.0 cm wide and 6-18 cm long) that grow all in one plane, spreading somewhat like a fan (Figure 1). 3 pp. U.S. 'Alba' 19 pp. Prepared for Parks Canada Agency, Bruce Peninsula National Park / Fathom Five National Marine Park, Tobermory, Ontario. 1998. Preliminary Results: Pollination of the Glacial Endemic Iris lacustris on the Bruce Peninsula. Existing Protection or Other Status Designations, Acknowledgements and Authorities Contacted, Également disponible en français sous le titre Évaluation et Rapport de situation du, http://www.registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca/sar/assessment/status_e.cfm, http://www.cpp.msu.edu/etposter/etposter.htm, 3 patches found E of private cottage area. The most recent review of the American status of the species was initiated in 2007 (USFWS 2009). 2010. New York Botanical Garden, 910 pp. The lack of insect pollinators is presented here as a potential limitation that may prevent the species from possibly being more widespread or more resistant to habitat damage. He has authored or co-authored more than 100 ecological reports, papers, and articles, and has inventoried hundreds of natural areas in southern and central Ontario. Three Manitoulin records for Dwarf Lake Iris in the database of the Natural Heritage Information Centre (NHIC; Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources) are presumed erroneous. Therefore, as with cottage development, trail use may be either a threat or a benefit, depending on the degree or intensity of the activity. Clearing of land and construction of buildings, driveways, and roads directly damages plants, dislodges shallow soils, and can completely destroy habitat. Searched briefly but not much suitable habitat present. IRIS LACUSTRIS SEEDS (Dwarf Lake Iris) - Plant World Seeds. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Dwarf Lake Iris Iris lacustris in Canada. Available on-line at http://www.fws.gov/endangered/wildlife.html; Accessed April 22, 2009. These threats have been especially severe in Bruce County and in the Carter Bay and South Baymouth areas of Manitoulin Island, where the shoreline is being subdivided and habitat is being lost to cottages and second homes. What constitutes an individual for this rhizomatous, colonial plant depends on how “individual” is defined. 1913. Dwarf Lake Iris transplants from Manitoulin Island were grown and successfully fruited in a private garden in Ottawa, Ontario for a number of years until they were crowded out by grass (Jones, unpublished data). The extent of occurrence for this species has increased from 382 km² to a current 8232 km². Kristina Makkay is an ecologist specializing in field botany. Abundance is difficult to quantify for Dwarf Lake Iris. See Threats and Limiting Factors section for a detailed discussion. 64 pp. Several patches growing along paths and in openings in the trees, and scattered individuals, in area of about 20 ha. Guire, K.E. Extirpated (XT) A wildlife species no longer existing in the wild in Canada, but occurring elsewhere. Dwarf Lake Iris is found on moist sands, gravel, and limestone crevices (Voss 1972). Brinker. Dwarf Lake Iris was reported in 1874 by Macoun from the Fishing Islands, Bruce County, but has not been seen there since (Table 2). 1982-1987. Related Plants. Habitat Dwarf lake iris is endemic to Great Lakes shorelines, where it is found in coastal cedar-fir-spruce forests and limestone pavement/grassland (especially along Garden Peninsula Niagaran escarpment formation). Location data very vague; could be a current population known by a different name. This suggests that microclimate along the shores is not necessarily a requirement for Dwarf Lake Iris. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (p. 41). Although over 1 million shoots have been counted in this clonal species that forms large patches, the number of actual individuals represented by this figure is unknown. Accessed: 2015 May 09. * Formerly described as “Vulnerable” from 1990 to 1999, or “Rare” prior to 1990. A new station for the dwarf lake iris, Iris lacustris. POWO . Michigan Botanist 23: 68. Map not Available. Policies and Guideline Series accessed July 2010. Habitat for this species has not been regulated anywhere. It is a rhizomatous, beardless perennial plant, native to the Great Lakes region of eastern North America. 1996-2009) suggest little evidence of browsing. Images not available. That review may have resulted in changes and additions to the initial version of the report. Brownell, V.R. 1940. University Press, Cambridge. Flora of North America North of Mexico 26: 1-723. obs. Report from the 2007 species at risk surveys on the Wikwemikong Reserve. Cottage development and trail use by ATVs or foot traffic may be either a threat or a benefit, depending on the degree or intensity of the activity. The Canadian population could make up as much as 30% of the global distribution, based on numbers of populations known globally (40 out of a global total of 135). On June 5, 2003, the Species at Risk Act (SARA) was proclaimed. Flowers lack stalks and are enveloped at the base of the leaves (unlike the common Northern Blue Flag (Iris versicolor) where the flowers are on tall stalks). Makholm, M. 1986. Average age of individuals and generation time are unknown, but given the size of some colonies, it can be speculated that some plants live for decades. Iris lacustris, the dwarf lake iris, is a plant species in the genus Iris, subgenus Limniris and in the section Lophiris (crested irises). Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute 23: 3-65. Foster, R.C. 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